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2010年塑料周转箱行业发展总结

2010-12-28 17:59:57

随着中国经济整体稳定持续健康发展,中国塑料工业经过“十一五”实现了跨越式的发展,塑料周转箱业取得了令世人瞩目的成就,实现了主要经济指标两位数大幅度增长,总产值位居轻工行业第三位,出口居第五位,已成为中国国民经济健康发展中的支柱产业。

 


1中国塑料周转箱产业发展现状与特色


1.1发展现状


“十一五”期间,塑料周转箱行业主要经济指标实现了翻番,超过预期目标。

以塑料周转箱业为核心的“朝阳工业”产业规模进一步扩大,连续十年主要经济指标逐年递增,全行业不断发展壮大,塑料加工机械位居世界第一,塑料周转箱和合成树脂位居世界第二;行业技术创新能力得到进一步增强,企业技术研发中心数量不断增多,已构建成若干个区域性高新技术产业群;产业结构、企业结构和产品结构不断调整,产业集约度逐步升级;塑料工业的整体优势得到进一步提升和加强,与国际上发达国家的差距正在逐渐缩小,某些方面已达到世界先进水平,已经进入从大国向先进强国迈进的“十一五”关键时期。

2010年,塑料工业克服原料价格居高不下、市场竞争日趋激烈、盲目引进造成的部分产品生产能力严重过剩等不利因素,加大科技创新力度,挖掘企业潜力,积极开拓国际市场,取得了骄人的业绩。西安塑料周转箱规模以上企业的总产值、主营业务收入、利税总额和利润总额的增长幅度均超过了20%。

现在中国的塑料加工工业正处于“十一五”计划的关键时期,中国将努力实现从大国向强国的跨越。


1.2西安周转箱产业发展特点


2010年中国咸阳塑料周转箱规模以上企业产量28019kt,比上年同期增长18.68%,比上年增长高出6个百分点。塑料管材和其他塑料周转箱增长超过30%,塑料型材和塑料丝、编织制品增长达到20%,塑料包装箱、容器增长达18%,农膜增长达9.6%。

塑料行业发达地区主要分布在东南沿海各省市,产业的集群效应十分明显。2010年广东、浙江、江苏三省塑料周转箱合计为15925.6kt, 占塑料周转箱总量的56.8%。


中国塑料机械已形成20万台套的生产能力,居世界第一位,近一半产品出口至世界各地。国内市场份额:在数量上,国产占有率约70%,进口占有率30%;但是在金额上,国产占20%,进口占80%;2010年中国塑料机械出口2.4万台,比上年增长28.8%,出口额5.4亿美元,增长35.7%;进口1.7万台,下降2.1%,进口额13.2亿美元,下降1.7%;出口量是进口量的1.4倍,但出口额仅为进口额的41%;塑料机械进出口平均价差高达5.4万美元/台;塑料机械进口量持续下降明显;未来5~10年,塑料机械跟合成树脂、塑料周转箱业一样仍是朝阳产业,我国将是21世纪塑料工业最大的市场之一。


2010年我国塑料模具总产值约300多亿元,其中出口约7亿美元,约合人民币58亿元。根据海关统计资料,2010年我国共进口塑料模具约10亿美元,约合人民币83亿元。由此可以得出,除自产自用外,市场销售方面,2010年我国塑料模具总需求约为313亿元人民币,国产模具总供给约为230亿元人民币,市场满足率约为73.5%。


中国合成树脂产量1975年仅为330kt,2010年中国塑料表观消费量超过40000kt,比上年增长6.5%;五大通用树脂占主导地位,PE、PP、PVC、PS和ABS的总产量约占合成树脂总产量的94%;中国合成树脂产量的快速增长,改写了我国树脂的消费量大部分依赖进口的历史,我国已能立足国内生产满足需求,并对周边国家及地区产生了极大的影响。


2未来重点发展方向


改革开放以来,我国实现了20多年的经济高速增长,但也出现了一些问题,如经济增长方式粗放、环保压力大、综合竞争力不强等,这些问题反映到轻工业和塑料加工业则主要表现为产品“三低两高”,即低附加值、低质量、低价值和高污染、高耗能,在国际贸易中我们只能以“三低”(低价格、低附加值、低效益)赢得竞争优势,不仅浪费了我国大量能源资源,还带来了许多国际贸易摩擦。当前国家实施“有保有压”的宏观调控政策,在轻工行业就是要“压”高耗能、高污染、低质量、低价值的企业及其产品生产。

在这样的形势下,宝鸡塑料周转箱行业发展处于战略转型的关键时机,就是从“三高两低”增长方式向低耗、高质和高附加值的增长方式转变,走绿色发展道路。当前迫切的课题是,应当认真研究塑料加工业的战略转型问题。


我认为,有几点值得参考:

一是在生产过程中,应鼓励企业按照循环经济思路去生产,搞好节能减排,尽量做到零污染排放和最低资源能源消耗。

二是鼓励企业生产节能环保、无污染的绿色产品,满足国家标准。轻工行业应当引进世界最先进的质量标准和环保标准。

三是要适应世界经济发展趋势,鼓励我国有实力的轻工企业走出去,通过并购方式兼并国际知名企业,尽快发展成为世纪级企业,打造国际品牌。


“十一五”期间塑料加工行业应力争实现可持续发展。首先应加强自主创新能力、提升产品质量和竞争力;其次应实现节能降耗;再次应加强塑料废弃物的回收利用,同时还要加强降解塑料的研发力度,使其尽早实现工业化。


将来,在具体的塑料周转箱方面,我们应加强对以下几方面产品的研发和生产:

(1) 进一步提高农用塑料周转箱(农用地膜、节水器材等)、建筑合成材料和其他重要的建筑材料的性能;

(2) 包装材料和建筑材料的市场增长迅速,应严格按照产品标准和规范生产相应制品;

(3) 随着国民经济的发展,高技术含量和高附加值的工程塑料周转箱、合成材料的市场日益扩大;

(4) 大体积制品(管材、型材、卷材、双向拉伸膜等)均向着规模经济的趋势发展;

(5) 加强塑料机械和模具的设计和生产,增加产品种类,提高品质,提高其整体质量;

(6) 体育器材、医疗用品和家居用品应符合安全、卫生和环保的要求;

(7) 加强对废弃塑料周转箱的回收、处理,以及对可降解塑料的研发力度;

(8) 采用不含氟里昂的发泡物,以实现保护臭氧层的目的。

英文版:

Development of China’s Plastics Machinery Industry

1 Basic status

1.1 Product Output and Key Economic Indicators

Currently, China is not only the world’s largest plastic machinery producer in output, but also the world’s largest importer and consumer and an important exporter.

Product Output: The output of key products such as injection machines, extruding machines and hollow blow-molding machines were 18109,6031 and 699 respectively in 1995 and 29331,7784 and 1425 in 2000,increasing by 11.40%,5.43% and 11.92% respectively in the five years from 1996 to 2000. The output in 2004 was 61479, 18254 and 3973, increasing by 21.08%,18.06% and 34.74% in the four years since 2000. In 2005, this sector maintained high-speed growth. As estimated, their output were expected to exceed 70000,23000 and 5000 respectively in 2010.

Total industrial output value: Total industrial output value of China's plastics machinery industry was RMB 4.741 billion and RMB 8.529 in 1995 and 2000 respectively. This figure hit RMB 18.873 billion in 2005, maintaining 17.33% average annual growth rate from 2000 to 2005. This figure was expected to exceed RMB 23 billion in 2010, increasing by 20% over previous year.

Beginning in 1980s, China’s plastic machinery manufacture entered a fast-growing period.

By late 2010, China had more than 500 enterprises manufacturing plastic molding equipment or about 1000 enterprises including those manufacturing peripheral products. Through shareholding reform and competition in domestic and international markets, various types of enterprises and particularly town/township enterprises experienced qualitative changes in manufacturing technology and quality of staff teams while witnessing rapid growth in product diversity and output.

1.2 Features shaped in high- speed growth:

(1) Regional concentration. Manufacturing enterprises are mainly located in the YRD (Yangtze River Delta) region, PRD(Pearl River Delta) region and Bohai-rim region.Such provinces as Zhejiang, Guangdong, Jiangsu and Shandong plays a pivotal role in China’s plastic machinery manufacturing sector. In terms of output in 2010,Zhejiang,Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu accounted for 72.36%, 16.95%, 4.30% and 4.01% respectively. These regions are also most developed regions in China's economy. Some other provinces and cities also have some advantages in traditional product manufacturing, such as Lanzhou in mixing parallel twin- screw extruding machines and Wuhan in extrusion blow molding machine, bagmaking machine and polyurethane(PU) highpressure foaming injection machine.

(2)Intensification and rapid growth in specialized production. Screws, barrels, components (such as heating rings, drive devices and filter mesh) and molds for various types of peripheral devices and molding equipment began scale production and production areas are relatively concentrated. Zhoushan region in Zhejiang is famous around the world for manufacturing screws and barrels with annual output value hitting RMB 2 billion. More than 80% of the extruding, injection and hollow blow-molding equipment in China are equipped with screws and barrels from Zhoushan and this region also exports some amounts of products every year. Intensification in specialized production has improved the manufacturing technology of components for plastic machinery,and created the conditions for plastic machinery manufacturing enterprises to develop from previous large and complete structural mode towards small yet complete, development and market-oriented structural mode.

(3) Products to meet the needs of different markets.China is a developing country.Due to the difference in investment capacity of plastic processors and application sectors of plastic products, the domestic market in China is divided into high, medium and low-end markets while plastic machinery products are also divided into high, medium and low-end categories to match these markets. While meeting basic specifications in plastic processing, these differences mainly lie in functionality of mechanic units, sources of outsourced components, degree of automation and information application and service quality. For example, when equipped with cooling devices, film blowing units for extruding machine may increase output by 30% while manufacturing cost may increase by RMB 200 000~500 000. Joint venture enterprises, foreign-funded enterprises and domestic-funded enterprises with extensive manufacturing experience are key manufacturers of high-end plastic machinery.

  

2 Plastic machinery pro- ducts overview

2.1 Injection molding machine

In 2010, output of China’s general injection molding machine hit 80 000 sets annually and industrial output value in this sector accounted for 50% in total industrial output value of the entire plastic industry.China-made general injection machine has some relative advantages: highly applicable to a full range of raw materials; equipped with globally sourced components such as hydraulic and electrical components, making maintenance an easier job; short delivery time,3~6 months delivery time for >100kg injection machines; low price: 1/6~1/4 as that for imported equipment;available in market includes products line of various specifications with locking force ranging from 200kN to 36000 kN. They not only meet domestic production needs of plastic components in such sectors as automobile, home appliances, transportation, electronics, information, construction and daily articles, but also are key products in plastic machinery export. In recent years,China exports about 100 000 sets of general injection machines per year.

In China, precision injection machine, including  micro part injection machine, has its specific definition,namely, its mechanical operation and products have to meet specific specifications such as injection pressure ≥25MPa, injection speed ≥300mm/s, material temperature control precision≤0.5℃,dimensional precision for products ≤0.001mmand quality tolerance ≤0.1%.

Currently, precision injection machine is a key category in China’s plastic machinery import and thousands of sets are imported from overseas market every year. China began to develop all-electric injection machines in late 1990s and now is in a stage of improvement. As a manufacturer of four-cylindar two-platen or three-cylinder two-platen all-hydraulic injection machine, Guangdong Only Machinery Co., Ltd. holds intellectual property for critical technologies and has registered invention patents in developed countries like Europe, USA and Japan. Currently, Only can provide series products with locking force within 8000 kN for production of such plastic products as digital CD and >1‰g micro plastic components. Electric-hydraulic precision injection machine is currently in a stage of development.

China-made special injection machine includes thin-wall, preform, two-component or multi-component, magnetic material, foamed material and thermoset material injection machines and plastic sole injection machines. Wuhan Light Industry Machinery Plant introduces manufacturing technology of polyurethane (PU) foaming high-pressure injection machine from German Elastogram through transfer of production license.Through innovation, this plant can now provide molding technologies and complete equipment for production of foamed materials for refrigerators and freezers as well as car seat cushions, backrests, armrests and instrument panels. As a result, refrigerator and freezer foamed insulating material processing equipment has completely substituted imported equipment. Under conditions of identical price, their equipment can fully compete with German and Italian products in technical performance.

2.2 Extrusion molding machine

Extruding machine is another large product category of China-made plastic machinery only next to injection machine. In 2010, as estimated, this sector exceeds 25 000 sets in output and its industrial output value accounts for 25% in total industrial output value of the entire plastic industry. Also, extruding machine is one of the key export plastic machine products.

2.3 Hollow molding machine

Of all the hollow molding machines, extrude-blow-stretching machine needs further development and one-step injection-stretch-blowing machine is expanding applications while other products are witnessing a high-speed growth. Maximum capacity for rotary molded products comes up to 10 000L and that for extrusion-blow products comes up to 5000L while injection-stretch-blowing machine produces 30 000 bottles per hour when producing 0.6L products.

In recent years, hollow products have found extensive growth in industrial applications such as pallets, containers, oil tanks and air inlet/outlet pipes for automobile while processing equipment in this sector experienced corresponding growth.

  

3 Plastic machinery ma- rket in China

3.1 Capacity and composition of China’s plastic machinery market

As shown in table 1,imported equipment accounts for 80% in value in China’s market capacity and maintains a growing trend. Key reason for this is that average price for imported equipment is 4 times that of China-made equipment;rapid growth in export of China-made equipment results in dramatic decline in sales of the domestic market;increasingly more overseas investors use equipment as investment to set up joint venture of sole proprietorship plastic processing enterprises in China.

As shown in table 2, key users of imported equipment are three-capital enterprises, accounting for higher than 75% in import value. Foreign investment accounts for higher than 50% in import trade but only 30% in general trade. In 2005, import is mainly from developed or relatively developed countries and regions, of which, 8 countries and regions such as Japan, Germany, Taiwan province, South Korea, Italy, USA, China Hong Kong and Canada accounts for 90.83%.It can be concluded that imported plastic machinery represents leading technology.

3.2 China-made plastic machinery in international market

(1) High-speed growth in export

Only a few years ago, China-made plastic machinery was unknown in overseas market while now “Made in China” plastic machinery is exported around the world. In recent years, average annual sales value of plastic machinery in the world is 20 billion Euros, of which, Germany,Italy and China accounts for 30%,20% and 10% (7%) respectively. However, China is in a stage of high-speed growth. Since 1998 when China exceeded USD 100 million in export,China has maintained 40% average annual growth rate and accomplished USD 1.33 billion in 2005 (see table 3).

(2) Export of key products

As shown in table 4, in recent 5 years, China-made plastic machinery export mainly targeted developing countries or regions in Asia, Africa and Latin America. In recent years, export destinations are shifting to developed or relatively developed countries or regions such as Europe, USA and Japan. In 2003, export to developed or relatively developed countries or regions accounted for 60%. In 2005, export to 9 countries such as Hong Kong, Japan, USA, Taiwan province, Russia, Singapore, Germany, Italy and South Korea hit USD 680 million, accounting for 51.45% of total export value that year. From 2002 to 2005, export to these 9 countries or regions maintained 45% average annual growth rate. This indicates that China is rapidly expanding her market in developed or relatively developed countries or regions (see table 5).

  

4 Promising vision and great potential for market development

Compared with high production cost in other countries,China’s plastic machinery manufacturing sector will maintain relative advantages in the years to come.

Without technical progress, it is impossible to open up new markets. In China’s plastic machinery manufacturing sector, many enterprises have realized the importance of innovation and are intensifying technical development and innovation, in which great progress has been made. Progress in plastic machinery manufacturing technology in combination with China’s strategies of proprietary will help further open up market for China-made plastic machinery.

With increasing higher requirements on plastic machinery in overseas market, China’s plastic machinery manufacturing enterprises are making constant improvement in manufacturing technology and management to gear up and open up international market.


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